Fertility awareness/luonnollinen perhesuunnittelu ja tieteellinen tutkimus

Fertility awareness / Natural Family Planning menetelmien luotettavuuteen liittyvät tutkimukset:

P. Frank-Herrmann, J. Heil, C. Gnoth, E. Toledo, S. Baur, C. Pyper, E. Jenetzky, T. Strowitzki, G. Freundl, (2007). The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Human Reproduction 22(5): 1310-1319.

Frank Herrmann P, Freundl G, Gnoth C, et al (1997). Natural Family Planning with and without barrier method use in the fertile phase: efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: a German prospective long-term study. Advances in Contraception 13:179-189.

Bhargava H, Bhatia JC, Ramachandran L, Rohatgi P, Sinha A (1996). Field trial of billings ovulation method of natural family planning. Contraception 53: 69–74.

Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June 1998. 

Howard MP & Stanford JB (1999). Pregnancy probabilities during use of the Creighton Model Fertility Care System. Arch Fam Med. 8(5):391-402.

Fehring RJ, Schneider M, Raviele K. Efficacy of cervical mucus observations plus electronic hormonal fertility monitoring as a method of natural family planning. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs 36:152-160, 2007. 

Fehring, R., Schneider, M., Raviele, K, & Rodriguez, D (2013). Randomized Comparison of Two Internet- Supported Fertility Awareness Based Methods of Family Planning. Contraception. 88(1): 24-30.

Arevalo M, Jennings V, Nikula M, et al. Efficacy of the new TwoDay Method of family planning. Fertil Steril 2004;82: 885–892.

Fehring RJ, Schneider M, Barron ML et al (2013). Influence of motivation on the efficacy of natural family planning. MCN, the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 38: 352–358. 

Muut luonnollisen ehkäisyn menetelmät:

Marcos Arevalo, Victoria Jennings, Irit Sinai (2002). Efficacy of a new method of family planning: the Standard Days Method. Contraception 65: 333–338.

Kambic RT, Lamprecht V (1996). Calendar rhythm efficacy: a review. Advances in Contraception 12: 123–128.

G, Frank-Herrmann P, Godehardt E, et al (1998). Retrospective clinical trial of contraceptive effectiveness of the electronic fertility indicator Ladycomp/Babycomp. Advances in Contraception 14: 97–108. 

Bergund Scherwitzl E, Gemzell Danielsson E, Sellberg JA, Scherwitzl R (2017). Perfect-use and typical-use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app. Contraception Volume 96, Issue 6, 420-425 

Labbok MH, Hight-Laukaran V, Peterson AE, et al. Multicenter study of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM): I. Efficacy, duration, and implications for clinical application. Contraception 1997; 55: 327–336.

Rachel K. Jones, Julie Fennell, Jenny A. Higgins and Kelly Blanchard. Better than nothing or savvy risk-reduction practice? The importance of withdrawal. Contraception 79 (2009) 407–410.

Katsauksia ja keskustelua:

Manhart MD, Duane M, Lind A, Sinai I, Golden-Tevald J. Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning: a review of effectiveness for avoiding pregnancy using SORT. Osteopathic Fam Physician. 2013;5(1):2-8.

 Peragallo Urrutia R, Polis CB, Jensen ET, Greene ME, Kennedy E, Stanford JB (2018). Effectiveness of fertility-awareness-based methods for pregnancy prevention in prospective studies: a systematic review. Obstetrics and Gynecology 132(3):591-604.

Duane Marguerite, Motley, Robert & Manhart, Michael (2013). Physicians Need More Education About Natural Family Planning. American Family Physician 88(3): 158-9. 

Unseld M, Rötzer E, Weigl R, Masel EK & Manhart MD (2017). Use of Natural Family Planning (NFP) and its Effect on Couple Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction: A Multi-Country Survey of NFP Users from US and Europe. Frontiers in Public Health 5: 42.

Shawn Malarcher, Jeff Spieler, Madeleine Short Fabic, Sandra Jordan, Ellen H Starbird & Clifton Kenon (2016). Fertility Awareness Methods: Distinctive Modern Contraceptives. Glob Health Sci Pract 4(1): 13–15.

Stanford, JB, Lemaire JC, Thurman PB (1998) Women’s interest in natural family planning. Journal of Family Practice 46(1):65-71.

Malarcher S, Spieler J, Fabic MS, Jordan S, Starbird EH, Kenon C (2016). Fertility awareness methods: distinctive modern contraceptives. Global Health: Science and Practice 4 (1): 13-15. 

Kristen Austad et al. (2016). Fertility Awareness Methods Are Not Modern Contraceptives: Defining Contraception to Reflect Our Priorities. Glob Health Sci Pract 4(2): 342–345.

Malarcher S, et al. Response to Austad: Offering a Range of Methods, Including Fertility Awareness Methods, Facilitates Method Choice. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016 Jun 20; 4(2): 346–349. 

Hassoin, D (2018). Natural Family Plannign Method and Barrier: CNGOF Contraception Guidelines. Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 46(12): 873-882. 

Frank-Herrman, P., Freundl, G., Baur, S., Bremme, M., Döring, G.K., Godehardt, E. et al. Effectiveness and acceptability of the symptothermal method of natural family planning in Germany. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 165: 2052–2064


Hatcher RA, Nelson Al, Trussel J, Cwiak C, Cason P, Policar MS, Edelman A, Aiken ARA, Marrazzo J,Kowal D, (toim). Contraceptive Technology. 21st edition. New York, NY: Ayer Company Publishers, Inc. 2018.

Jane Knight. The Complete Guide to Fertility Awareness. UK: Routledge 2016.

Kierron kartoittaminen, raskauden suunnittelu ja hedelmättömyys

Thijssen, A., Meier, A., Panis, K., & Ombelet, W. (2014). Fertility Awareness-BasedMethods and subfertility: a systematic review. Facts, views & vision in ObGyn, 6(3), 113–123.

Frank-Herrmann P, Jacobs C, Jenetzjy F, Goth C, Piper C, Baur S, Freude G, Goeckenjan M, Strowitzki T (2017). Natural conception rates in subfertile couples following fertility awareness training. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2017; 296: 1015-1024.

Fertility Awareness /Natural Family Planning -menetelmien tieteellinen perusta:

  • Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952.
  • Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980.
  • Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952.
  • Zondek B and Rosen S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954.
  • Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972.
  • Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979.
  • Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
  • Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979.
  • Faccioli G, Cortesi S, and Calderoni P: Structure of Human Cervical Mucus Correlation with Plasma Ovarian Hormone Levels. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. 14:41-50, 1983.
  • Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984.
  • Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981.
  • Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986.
  • Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983.
  • Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994.
  • Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994.
  • Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971.
  • Elstein Max. Functions and physical properties of mucus in the female genital tract. Br Med Bull 1978; 34: 83–88.
  • Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984.
  • Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984.
  • Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979.
  • Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973.
  • Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972.
  • Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981.
  • Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972.
  • Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976.
  • Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979.
  • Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978.
  • Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatropins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981.
  • Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979.
  • Hilgers TW: Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method. In: Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne, Australia, p59, 1979.
  • Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985.
  • Daily DC, Reuter K, Cohen S, et al: Follicle Size by Ultrasound versus Cervical Mucus Quality: Normal and Abnormal Patterns in Spontaneous Cycles. Fertil Steril 51: 598-603, 1989.
  • Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987.
  • Depares J, Ryder, REJ, Walker SM, et al: Ovarian Ultrasonography Highlights Precision of Symptoms of Ovulation as Markers of Ovulation. Brit Med J 292: 1562, 1986.
  • Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986.
  • Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  • Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  • Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978.
  • Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989.
  • Fehring RJ and Lawrence DM: Spiritual Well-being, Self-esteem and Intimacy Among Couples Using Natural Family Planning. Linacre Quarterly. pp. 18-29, August 1994.
  • Hilgers TW: The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8: 226-264, 1984.
  • Barrett JC, Marshall J. The risk of conception on different days of the menstrual cycle. Popul Stud (Camb) 1969; 23: 455–461.
  • Scarpa B, Dunson DB, Colombo B. Cervical mucus secretions on the day of intercourse: an accurate marker of highly fertile days. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006; 125: 72–78.
  • Bigelow JL, Dunson DB, Standford JB, et al. Mucus observations in the fertile window: a better predictor of conception that timing of intercourse. Hum Reprod 2004; 19: 889–892.
  • Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968. 
  • Moghissi, Kamran S (1976). Accuracy of Basal Body Temperature for Ovulation Detectin. Fertility and Sterility 27(12): 1415-1421.
  • J. Rötzer. Erweiterte Basaltemperaturmessung und Empfängnisregelung. Archiv für Gynäkologie 206, 195 -214 (1968)
  • J. Rötzer: The Sympto-Thermal Method: Ten Years of Change. The Linacre Quarterly, The National Federation of Catholic Physicians’ Guilds, Vol. 45, November 1978, NO.4, p.358 – 374.
  • Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982.
  • Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992.
  • Allen J. Wilcox, M.D., Ph.D., Clarice R. Weinberg, Ph.D., and Donna D. Baird, Ph.D. Timing of Sexual Intercourse in Relation to Ovulation—Effects on the Probability of Conception, Survival of the Pregnancy, and Sex of the Baby. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:1517-1521
  • Wilcox AJ, Dunson D, Baird DD. The timing of the ”fertile window” in the menstrual cycle: day specific estimates from a prospective study. BMJ 2000; 321: 1259–1262.
  • Ferreira-Poblete A. The probability of conception on different days of the cycle with respect to ovulation: an overview. Adv Contracept 1997; 13: 83–95.
  • Guida M, Tommaselli GA, Palomba S, et al. Efficacy of methods for determining ovulation in a natural family planning program. Fertil Steril 1999; 72: 900–904.
  • Parenteau-Carreau S, Infante-Rivard C. Self-palpation to assess cervical changes in relation to mucus and temperature. Int J Fertil 1988; 33(Suppl.): 10–16.
  • Keefe EF. Cephalad shift of the cervix uteri: sign of the fertile time in women. Int Rev Nat Fam Plann 1977; 1: 55–60.
  • Hernalsteen P, Devos A, et al. Self-assessment of the cervical pupil sign as a new fertility-awareness method. Fertil Steril 2008; 91: 937–939.
  • Gnoth, Christian. Approaches to natural family planning. Fertility and Sterility. December 2000 Volume 74, Issue 6, Pages 1262–1263.
  • Freundl, Günter: Present stage of knowledge of reproductive biology concerning natural family planning, in: Genius (1998), Vol. LIV, n. 3-4, p. 57-74.
  • Freundl G, Godehardt E, Kern PA, et al. Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using daily conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle. Hum Reprod 2003; 18:2628
  • Gnoth, C.H., Frank-Herrmann, P., Bremme, M., Freundl, G., and Godehardt, E. Do the symptoms of self-observation correlate with the ovulation?. Zentralbl Gynǎkol. 1996; 118: 650–654
  • Frank-Herrmann, Petra; Gnoth, Christian; Baur, Siegfried; Strowitzki, Thomas; Freundl, Günter:
    Determination of the fertile window: Reproductive competence of women – European cycle databases, in: Gynecological Endocrinology (2005), Vol. 20, No. 6, p. 305-312. 
  • Ecochard R, Duterque O, Leiva R, Bouchard T, Vigil P. Self-identification of the clinical fertile window and the ovulation period. Fertil Steril. 2015 May;103(5):1319-25.e3.
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